Filling the Hole in Indonesia’s Constitutional System: Constitutional Courts and the Review of Regulations in a Split Jurisdiction

Tim Lindsey

Abstract


The Indonesian constitutional system contains a serious flaw that means that the constitutionality of a large number of laws cannot be determined by any court. Although the jurisdiction for the judicial review of laws is split between the Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court, neither can review the constitutionality of subordinate regulations. This is problematic because in Indonesia the real substance of statutes is often found in implementing regulations, of which there are very many. This paper argues that that is open to the Constitutional Court to reconsider its position on review of regulations in order to remedy this problem. It could do so by interpreting its power of judicial review of statutes to extend to laws below the level of statutes. The paper begins with a brief account of how Indonesia came to have a system of judicial constitutional review that is restricted to statutes. It then examines the experience of South Korea’s Constitutional Court, a court in an Asian civil law country with a split jurisdiction for judicial review of laws like Indonesia’s. Despite controversy, this court has been able to interpret its powers to constitutionally invalidate statutes in such a way as to extend them to subordinate regulations as well. This paper argues that Indonesia’s Constitutional Court should follow South Korea’s example, in order to prevent the possibility of constitutionalism being subverted by unconstitutional subordinate regulations.

Keywords


Constitutional Court, Constitutional Review; Judicial Review; Supreme Court

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bahar, Saafroedin and Nannie Hudawati. Risalah Sidang Badan Penyelidik

Usaha-Usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (BPUKI), Panitia Persiapan

Kemerdekaan Indonesia (PPKI), 28 Mei 1945-22 Agustus 1945. Jakarta:

Sekretariat Negara Republik Indonesia, 1998.

Butt, Simon and Tim Lindsey. “Economic reform when the Constitution matters:

Indonesia’s Constitutional Court and Article 33”, Bulletin of Indonesian

Economic Studies, Vol 44, No. 2, (2008): 239-261.

Butt, Simon.“Regional Autonomy and the Proliferation of Perda in Indonesia:

An Assessment of Bureaucratic and Judicial Review Mechanisms”, Sydney

Law Review, Vol 32(2), (2010): 177.

Butt, Simon and Tim Lindsey. The Constitution of Indonesia: A Contextual

Analysis, Oxford: Hart Publishing (2012).

Butt, Simon and Tim Lindsey. Indonesian Law, Oxford: Oxford University Press

(in press, 2018)

Butt, Simon and Nicholas Parsons. “Judicial Review and the Supreme Court in

Indonesia: A New Space for Law?” Indonesia (2014): 97

Constitutional Court Decision on Electricity Law, No: 001-021-022/PUU-I/2003

(The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia 2003).

Constitutional Court Decision on Water Law, No. 058-059-060-063/PUU-II/2004

(The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia 2004).

Constitutional Court Decision on Water Law, No. 008/PUU-III/2005 (The

Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia 2005).

Constitutional Court Decision on Review of Perppu, No. 3/PUU-III/2005 (The

Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia 2005).

Constitutional Court Decision on Review of Perppu, No. 138/ PUU-VII/2009 (The

Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia 2009).

Constitutional Court Decision on Review of Perppu, No.1-2/PUU-XII/2014 (The

Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia 2014).

Constitutional Court Decision on Government Review of Regional Regulations, No.

/PUU-XIII/2015 (The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia 2015).

Constitutional Court Decision on Government Review of Regional Regulations,

No.56/PUU-XIV/2016 (The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia

.

Constitutional Court Decision on Rules Implementing the Certified Judicial

Scriveners Act Case (1990), 89 Hun-Ma 178 (The Constitutional Court of Korea).

Constitutional Court Decision on Billiard Hall Entry Restriction case (1993), 92

Hun-Ma 80 (The Constitutional Court of Korea).

Constitutional Court Decision on Prior Review of Broadcast Advertisements Case

(2008), 2005 Hun-Ma 506 (The Constitutional Court of Korea).

Constitutional Court of Korea. The First Ten Years of the Korean Constitutional

Court, Constitutional Court of Korea, Seoul: Republic of Korea (2001).

Damian, Eddy and Robert Hornic. "Indonesia’s Formal Legal System: An

Introduction", American Journal of Comparative Law Vol. 20 (1972): 492.

Ginsburg, Tom. "The Constitutional Court and the Judicialization of Korean

Politics." In New Courts in Asia, edited by Andrew Harding, 145-157. New

York: Routledge (2009).

Hukumonline. “Sepanjang 2016, 22 RUU Telah Sah Jadi UU” Hukumonline (27

December 2016)

sepanjang-2016--22-ruu-telah-sah-jadi-uu>

Kompas. “Putusan MK Cabut Kewenangan Mendagri Batalkan Perda Provinsi”,

Kompas (14 June 2017) http://nasional.kompas.com/read/2017/06/14/22392261/

putusan.mk.cabut.kewenangan.mendagri.batalkan.perda.provinsi.

Lindsey, Tim. Islam, Law and the State in Southeast Asia: Vol. I. Indonesia,

London: I B Tauris 2012.

Lubis, Todung Mulya. "The Rechsstaat and Human Rights." In Indonesia: Law

and Society, edited by Tim Lindsey, 171-85. Annandale: Federation Press, 1999.

Newland, Erica. "Executive Orders in Court." Yale Law Journal 124 (2015): 2026.

Prabowo, Dani. "Ini 40 RUU Dalam Prolegnas Prioritas 2016" Kompas (22

January, 2016) http://nasional.kompas.com/read/2016/01/22/13450911/Ini.40.

RUU.dalam.Prolegnas.Prioritas.2016?page=all.

Sekretariat Jenderal dan Kepaniteraan Mahkamah Konstitusi. Naskah Komprehensif

Perubahan Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 1945:

Latar Belakang, Proses Dan Hasil Pembahasan 1999- 2002 (Buku VI Tentang

Kekuasaan Kehakiman), (Edisi Revisi). Jakarta: Sekretariat Jenderal dan

Kepaniteraan Mahkamah Konstitusi, 2010.

Schwarz, Adam. A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the 1990s, Boulder: Westview

Press, 1994.

Supreme Court Decision. No. 03 G/HUM/2002 (The Supreme Court of the

Republic of Indonesia).

Supreme Court Decision. No. 06 P/HUM/2003 (The Supreme Court of the

Republic of Indonesia).

Supreme Court Decision. No. 06 P/HUM/2006 2003 (The Supreme Court of the

Republic of Indonesia).

Ziegenhain, Patrick. The Indonesian Parliament and Democratization, Singapore:

Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2008.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.31078/consrev412

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Constitutional Review