Problematika Presidential Threshold: Putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi dan Pengalaman di Negara Lain

Abdul Ghoffar

Abstract


Soal syarat minimal dukungan pencalonan presiden (presidential threshold) di Indonesia terus diperdebatkan, terutama soal konstitusionalitas dari persyaratan tersebut. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji Putusan MK terkait persoalan presidential threshold sekaligus melihat apakah negara lain juga menerapkan sistem tersebut. Kajian dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode yuridis normatif. Kajian ini menyimpulkan sebagai berikut. Pertama, MK telah dua kali memutuskan konstitusionalitas ambang batas pencalonan presiden. Dalam putusan Nomor 51-52-59/PUU-VI/2008, MK menyatakan bahwa pengaturan ambang batas adalah open legal policy, yang kemudian dikuatkan kembali dalam Putusan Nomor 53/PUU-XV/2017. Kedua, di negara-negara yang menganut sistem presidensil, seperti Amerika, Brazil, Peru, Meksiko, Kolombia, dan Kyrgyzstan, ambang batas tidak dikenal. Mereka menerapkan sistem terbuka pencalonan tanpa dipersyaratkan dukungan. Meski demikian, sistem pemerintahan mereka juga tergolong stabil, seperti yang dicontohkan oleh Amerika Serikat.

Dispute on presidential threshold required for the Presidential election in Indonesia remains intense, particularly in regard to the constitutionality of this requirement. This study examines decisions given by the Constitutional Court on the Presidential Threshold as well as analyses if other countries have applied a similar system. The method used in this study is juridical normative. It can be concluded that the Constitutional Court has made two decisions on the constitutionality of the Presidential Threshold. Stated on Decision Number 51-52-59/PUU-VI/2008, the Constitutional Court regarded the threshold requirement for the presidential election as an open legal policy, strengthened by Decision Number 53/PUU-XV/2017. Meanwhile, in other presidential countries such as United State of America (USA), Brazil, Peru, Mexico, Columbia, and Kyrgyzstan, there is no place for presidential threshold. They apply an open candidacy without setting any threshold of supports. Nevertheless, USA for example, has successfully demonstrated a stable form of the government under that system.


Keywords


Presidential Threshold; Putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi; Indonesia

References


Buku

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Konstitusi Brazil. Brazil’s Constitution of 1988 with Amendments through 2014.

Konstitusi Peru. Peru’s Constitution of 1993 with Amendments through 2009.

Konstitusi Kolombia. Colombia’s Constitution of 1991 with Amendments through 2005.

Konstitusi Kyrgyzstan. Kyrgyzstan’s Constitution of 2010.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.31078/jk1532

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